“Background Intellectual Property” shall mean any and all information, data (including research data), know–how, methods, formulas, formulations, compositions, materials, manufacturing know–how (including methods and standard operating procedures), computer programs, test results and trade secrets, owned or controlled by Aridis as of the Effective Date of this Agreement for which a license is required in order to practice the Project Intellectual Property for the manufacture, use or sale of the Primary Formulation or Optional Formulation developed under the scope of the Project. Specifically excluded from this definition are (i) those rights held by Aridis under license to the U.S. DHHS National Institute of Health technology known as “Multivalent Human Bovine Rotavirus Vaccine,” DHHS reference No. E–015–98/0; (ii) those intellectual property rights owned, controlled or licensed by Aridis where the practice of such intellectual property would require the payment of consideration or fulfillment of obligations to a third party; (iii) rights to technologies unrelated to formulation which cover distinct therapeutic compounds, methods or product types (such as a Shigella vaccine form, for example); and (iv) clinical data.
4. Ownership of Intellectual Property, Data and Information
4.1 Ownership of Inventions and Prosecution of Patents
4.1.1. Subject to the provisions of this Agreement, title to any inventions conceived or reduced to practice solely by an Aridis employee in the course of implementing the Project Plan shall be owned by Aridis, shall be included within the definition of Project Intellectual Property hereunder, and shall be subject to the grant of rights specified herein. Inventions developed jointly by employees, Affiliates or consultants of PVS and employees and Affiliates of Aridis shall be jointly owned in accordance with U.S. patent laws and regulations and shall be included within the definition of Project Intellectual Property. Aridis may file patent applications on any such inventions at their sole cost and expense. If Aridis chooses not to file for patent protection with respect to any jointly owned inventions developed hereunder, Aridis shall notify PVS in writing of such decision within sufficient time to allow action to be taken by PVS without the loss of potential patent rights, and shall provide PVS with the opportunity to file, at PVS’ sole cost and expense, patent applications on any such jointly owned invention conceived or reduced to practice in the course of the Project Plan.
4.1.2 Aridis shall not abandon any patent application, patent or other right included within the scope of the Project Intellectual Property or the Background Intellectual Property, the effect of which would be to limit or prevent PVS from practicing the intellectual property rights licensed to PVS under this Agreement, without disclosure to PVS and arrangement by mutual agreement with PVS for the protection of PVS license rights.
4.1.3 Except as expressly provided in this Agreement, PVS shall receive no rights under the Aridis Background Intellectual Property and Project Intellectual Property.