Master Alliance Provisions Guide (MAPGuide)

Approaches to Equitable Access

This page provides links to equitable access policies and other resources developed by global health R&D funders, Product Development Partnerships (PDPs) and academic institutions. The information in these documents provides insight into the challenges surrounding equitable access, and how organizations may seek to achieve their access objectives. In particular, the resources give examples and explanations of the ways in which equitable access requirements may be addressed in funding and licensing agreements.

Global Health Funders


Stewardship & Access Plan Development Guide

This document provides guidance for developers of therapeutics, diagnostics and preventatives. It outlines CARB-X’s expectations of product developers regarding stewardship & access plans, and aims to inspire other organizations to develop and act upon their own access principles.


Global Access Statement & Humanitarian License

This statement provides an explanation of the concept of global access and sets out some of the requirements that the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation may make of its grantees. Standard global access commitment and humanitarian licence clauses are provided in the Humaniarian License FAQs.


Enabling Equitable Access to COVID-19 Vaccines

This document outlines CEPI’s approach to enabling and accelerating equitable access to COVID-19 vaccines. It sets out how CEPI seeks to enable access throughout the vaccine development processes, as well as providing summaries of CEPI’s COVID-19 agreements. CEPI also commissioned an external equitable access review of its COVID-19 vaccine development agreements.


Global Access Policy

The Research Investment for Global Health Technology (RIGHT) Fund sets out a Global Access Policy based on: (i) the prompt & broad dissemination of project data; and (ii) accessibility and availability in terms of price, quantity, quality and timeframe of products & innovations arising from funded projects.

Wellcome Trust

Equitable Access to Health Technologies: Lessons from COVID-19

This report outlines Wellcome’s assessment of key challenges to equitable access, including specific issues for R&D funders, and lessons learned from the COVID-19 pandemic. The report provides recommendations to tackle the challenges identified and sets out Wellcome’s own plan of action.

GHIT Access Policy

Applying for Funding: Access Policy

This document outlines Global Health Innovative Technology Fund’s data access policy and product access policy. The core principles of the product access policy are: i) the granting of royalty-free licenses to organizations in lower-income countries; and (ii) the use of no profit/no loss pricing in lower- and middle-income countries.

Product Development Partnerships


Access Policy

The Drugs for Neglected Diseases Initiative (DNDi) provides access policies well as gold standard terms. DNDi’s access policy emphasizes two guiding principles: (1) the need to ensure that drugs are affordable and available in an accessible manner, and (2) a motivation to develop drugs as a public good whenever possible.


Access and Stewardship

The Global Antibiotic Research and Development Partnership (GARD-P) emphasizes responsible and sustainable access to high quality drugs through appropriate stewardship. GARD-P sets out a Sustainable Access Framework to consider the needs of specific products and communities.


Socially Responsible Agreements

The Medicines for Malaria Venture (MMV) highlights the need to meet its public health mission through socially responsible agreements. In order to support its mission, MMV retains the rights to the intellectual property required for launching new drugs for their target patients. MMV’s policies emphasize that IP rights must be exclusive, royalty-free, and transferable. 

TB Alliance

Socially Responsible Agreements

The TB Alliance follows a “AAA Mandate”:  new products must be Adopted by regulatory bodies, must be Available to populations in need, and must be Affordable to patients with TB, within their health systems. To achieve this mandate, the TB alliance works with stakeholders and partners to ensure new products are endorsed and recommended, to perform and disseminate new research, and to ensure a consistent and affordable global supply chain.


Global Access Policy

FIND’s global access policy statement outlines “Four A’s” that govern its work with over 160 partners each year: Available, Appropriate, Affordable, and Adopted. FIND avoids a one-size-fits-all approach and instead focuses on best-fit solutions, affordable and quality products, affordable diagnostic solutions, and accelerated adoption with the context of LMICs.

Academic Institutions


Nine Points to Consider in Licensing University Technology

AUTM provides principles and guidelines as well as a global health toolkit to support the development of licenses that promote global access. AUTM endorses the Nine Points to Consider, as well as providing a set of COVID-19 Licensing Guidelines.

UC Berkeley

Socially Responsible Licensing Program

The Socially Responsible Licensing Program (SLRP) page from the UC Berkeley Office of Intellectual Property & Industry Research Alliances (IPIRA) provides a number of useful resources including model agreement clauses, articles, presentations and examples of SLRP projects.

Harvard, MIT, and Stanford

COVID-19 Technology Access Framework

The COVID-19 Technology Access Framework was jointly developed by Harvard University, the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, and Stanford University. The Framework sets out commitments for equitable access to university innovations during the COVID-19 pandemic.

Netherlands Federation of University Medical Centres

Ten Principles for Socially Responsible Licensing

The Netherlands Federation of University Medical Centres (NFU) developed the Ten Principles in 2019, and together with the Association of Universities in the Netherlands (VSNU), has added a toolkit including template patent license agreement terms to build on these principles. The organizations also provide a set of principles for public-private partnerships.

Universities Allied for Essential Medicines

Equitable Access Framework & Global Licensing Principles

Universities Allied for Essential Medicines (UAEM) is global network of university students promoting global access to university healthcare innovations. UAEM has developed an Equitable Technology Access Framework which sets out goals, principles and modalities for tech transfer. UAEM also advocates for the adoption of a Global Access Licensing Framework.

University of Edinburgh

Essential Medicines Position Statement

The University of Edinburgh recognizes that access to medicines is essential in advancing the development of low- and middle-income countries. This statement outlines the University’s responsibilities to promote global public health through 1) improving equitable access to health technologies; 2) promoting the development of health technologies; and 3) improving transparency in health technology transfer.

Emory University

Technology Transfer for Global Access

This document from Emory University’s Office of Technology Transfer outlines the university’s guiding principles in innovation access. These guiding principles include seeking industry partners and creating new companies, engaging in open discussion with industry partners in regards to philanthropic access, supporting production in low- and middle-income countries, and following effective global access principles when licensing Emory inventions.